Effects of Social Exclusion and Inclusion on Basic Needs Satisfaction, Self-Determined Motivation, the Orientations of Interpersonal Relationships, and Behavioural Self-Regulation

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Title: Effects of Social Exclusion and Inclusion on Basic Needs Satisfaction, Self-Determined Motivation, the Orientations of Interpersonal Relationships, and Behavioural Self-Regulation
Authors: Ricard, Nathalie
Date: 2011
Abstract: How does the satisfaction (or the lack of satisfaction) of the innate need to have meaningful interpersonal relationships affects behavioural self-regulation? How does having/lacking interpersonal relatedness impact one’s perception of future interpersonal relationships? This doctoral dissertation aimed to answer these two fundamental questions by integrating the views of two complementary theories, need to belong theory (NBT; Baumeister & Leary, 1995) and self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000). Using a series of two laboratory experiments and one longitudinal study, this thesis examined the effects of social exclusion and inclusion on satisfaction of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation, and self-regulation of behaviours. In Study 1 (N=72), social exclusion and inclusion were manipulated in order to examine their effects on the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs proposed by SDT, that is the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Findings from this first experiment revealed that social exclusion decreases satisfaction of the three needs, whereas social inclusion increases satisfaction of these needs when compared to the control condition. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the exclusion condition and the inclusion condition for the reported levels of satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness. The effects of social exclusion and inclusion on basic needs satisfaction were further investigated in Study 2 (N=70); also, the second study examined how self-determined motivation and behavioural self-regulation are affected. More specifically, it tested whether participants’ persistence at a laboratory task, as well as their intentions for a future peer interaction (intentions to compete against a peer participant and intentions to collaborate with a peer participant) are influenced by social exclusion and inclusion, through the meditating effects of basic needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. The results suggested that social exclusion, via the effects of basic needs and motivation decreases peer collaboration, whereas social inclusion was shown to have an opposite effect on peer collaboration. The effect of condition via the mediating effects of basic needs satisfaction and motivation failed to predict persistence at the task and peer competition. Lastly, Study 3 (N=624) assessed naturally occurring social exclusion and inclusion in a population of junior high school students. This third study investigated the independent contributions of SDT and NBT in the prediction of academic motivation and high school dropout. Peer relatedness, perceived needs support from parents, and perceived needs support from teachers were examined as potential predictors of academic motivation and high school dropout. Findings suggested that peer relatedness plays an important role in the prediction of academic motivation, but, that perceived needs support from parents and perceived needs support from teachers are stronger predictors of that outcome. Results from this study also revealed that peer relatedness contributes to the prediction of high school dropout, beyond what can be explained by academic motivation, perceived needs support from parents, and perceived needs support from teachers. However, perceived needs support from parents was shown to be the most essential predictor of high school dropout. In sum, findings from this doctoral dissertation suggested that social exclusion has detrimental effects on one’s motivation and behavioural self-regulation. In contrast, social inclusion fosters social support which promotes satisfaction of the basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation, and successful self-regulation. This doctoral thesis contributed to the application of SDT and NBT by comparing elements of the two complementary frameworks. It also offered an original contribution to research on social exclusion and inclusion by examining their impacts on self-determined motivation, and basic needs satisfaction, as well as testing them in both the laboratory setting and the natural setting.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/20046
CollectionThèses, 2009 - // Theses, 2009 -
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