The Role and Regulation of p53-associated, Parkin-like Cytoplasmic Protein (PARC) in p53 Subcellular Trafficking and Chemosensitivity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

The Role and Regulation of p53-associated, Parkin-like Cytoplasmic Protein (PARC) in p53 Subcellular Trafficking and Chemosensitivity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

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Title: The Role and Regulation of p53-associated, Parkin-like Cytoplasmic Protein (PARC) in p53 Subcellular Trafficking and Chemosensitivity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells
Author: Woo, Michael G.
Abstract: Resistance to cisplatin (CDDP)-based therapy is a major hurdle to the successful treatment of human ovarian cancer (OVCA) and the chemoresistant phenotype in OVCA cells is associated with Akt-attenuated, p53-mediated apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic functions of p53 involve both transcription-dependent and -independent signaling pathways and dysfunctional localization and/or inactivation of p53 contribute to the development of chemoresistance. PARC is a cytoplasmic protein regulating p53 subcellular localization and subsequent function. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating PARC. Although PARC contains putative caspase-3 cleavage sites, and CDDP is known to induce the activation of caspases and calpains and induce proteasomal degradation of anti-apoptotic proteins, if and how PARC is regulated by CDDP in OVCA is unknown. Here we present evidence that CDDP promotes calpain-mediated PARC down-regulation, mitochondrial and nuclear p53 accumulation and apoptosis in chemosensitive but not resistant OVCA cells. Inhibition of Akt is required to sensitize chemoresistant cells to CDDP in a p53-dependent manner, an effect enhanced by PARC down-regulation. CDDP-induced PARC down-regulation is reversible by inhibitor of calpain but not of caspase-3 or the 26S proteasome. Furthermore, in vitro experiments confirm the ability of calpain in mediating Ca2+-dependent PARC down-regulation. The role of Ca2+ in PARC down-regulation was further confirmed as ionomycin induced PARC down-regulation in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. The data presented here implicates the regulation of p53 subcellular localization and apoptosis by PARC as a contributing factor in CDDP resistance in OVCA cells and Ca2+/calpain in PARC post-translational processing and chemosensitivity.
Date: 2012
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/22671
Supervisor: Tsang, Benjamin K
Faculty: Médecine / Medicine
Degree: PhD

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