Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Description
Title: Cardiac Tissue Engineering
Authors: Dawson, Jennifer Elizabeth
Date: 2011
Abstract: The limited treatment options available for heart disease patients has lead to increased interest in the development of embryonic stem cell (ESC) therapies to replace heart muscle. The challenges of developing usable ESC therapeutic strategies are associated with the limited ability to obtain a pure, defined population of differentiated cardiomyocytes, and the design of in vivo cell delivery platforms to minimize cardiomyocyte loss. These challenges were addressed in Chapter 2 by designing a cardiomyocyte selectable progenitor cell line that permitted evaluation of a collagen-based scaffold for its ability to sustain stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte function (“A P19 Cardiac Cell Line as a Model for Evaluating Cardiac Tissue Engineering Biomaterials”). P19 cells enriched for cardiomyocytes were viable on a transglutaminase cross-linked collagen scaffold, and maintained their cardiomyocyte contractile phenotype in vitro while growing on the scaffold. The potential for a novel cell-surface marker to purify cardiomyocytes within ESC cultures was evaluated in Chapter 3, “Dihydropyridine Receptor (DHP-R) Surface Marker Enrichment of ES-derived Cardiomyocytes”. DHP-R is demonstrated to be upregulated at the protein and RNA transcript level during cardiomyogenesis. DHP-R positive mouse ES cells were fluorescent activated cell sorted, and the DHP-R positive cultured cells were enriched for cardiomyocytes compared to the DHP-R negative population. Finally, in Chapter 4, mouse ESCs were characterized while growing on a clinically approved collagen I/III-based scaffold modified with the RGD integrin-binding motif, (“Collagen (+RGD and –RGD) scaffolds support cardiomyogenesis after aggregation of mouse embryonic stem cells”). The collagen I/III RGD+ and RGD- scaffolds sustained ESC-derived cardiomyocyte growth and function. Notably, no significant differences in cell survival, cardiac phenotype, and cardiomyocyte function were detected with the addition of the RGD domain to the collagen scaffold. Thus, in summary, these three studies have resulted in the identification of a potential cell surface marker for ESC-derived cardiomyocyte purification, and prove that collagen-based scaffolds can sustain ES-cardiomyocyte growth and function. This has set the framework for further studies that will move the field closer to obtaining a safe and effective delivery strategy for transplanting ESCs onto human hearts.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/20071
CollectionThèses, 2009 - // Theses, 2009 -
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